Dactylorhiza is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Its species are commonly called marsh orchids or spotted orchids.[2] Dactylorhiza were previously classified under Orchis, which has two round tubers.[3]


They are hardy tuberous geophytes. In a thickened underground stem, they can store a large amount of water to survive arid conditions. The tuber is flattened and finger-like. The long leaves are lanceolate and, in most species, also speckled. They grow along a rather long stem which reaches a height of 70–90 cm (28–35 in). Leaves higher on the stem are shorter than leaves lower on the stem. The inflorescence, compared to the length of the plant, is rather short. It consists of a compact raceme with 25-50 flowers. These develop from axillary buds. The dominant colors are white and all shades of pink to red, sprinkled with darker speckles.



The name Dactylorhiza is derived from Greek words δάκτυλος daktylos 'finger' and ῥίζα rhiza 'root', referring to the palmately two- to five-lobed tubers of this genus.


Dactylorhiza cordigera ssp. pindica
Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. versicolor
Dactylorhiza russowii
Elder-flowered orchid
(Dactylorhiza sambucina)

Many species in this genus hybridise so readily that species boundaries themselves are vague (but see[4]), with regular name changes and no clear answers. A few species colonise very well onto fresh industrial wastes such as pulverised fuel ash, where vast hybrid swarms can appear for a decade or more, before ecological succession replaces them.

  • Dactylorhiza alpestris : Alpine Dactylorhiza (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians).
  • Dactylorhiza angustata (France).
  • Dactylorhiza aristata : Keyflower (E. China to Alaska).
    • Dactylorhiza aristata var. aristata : Keyflower (E. China to Alaska).
    • Dactylorhiza aristata var. kodiakensis : Kodiak Keyflower (Aleutian Is. to SW. Alaska).
  • Dactylorhiza armeniaca (Turkey) - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. armeniaca (Hedrén) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza atlantica Kreutz & Vlaciha (Morocco)
  • Dactylorhiza baldshuanica (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza baltica (Eastern Europe) (synonym of Dactylorhiza longifolia (Neuman) Aver.)
  • Dactylorhiza baumanniana (N. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza baumanniana subsp. smolikana (B. Willing & E. Willing) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (Greece)
  • Dactylorhiza bohemica (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza cordigera (Fr.) Soó (SE. Europe to Ukraine).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. bosniaca (N. Balkan Pen).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. cordigera (SE. Europe to Ukraine).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca (H.Baumann) Presser)
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. pindica (B. Willing & E. Willing) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (NW. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera var. rhodopeia Presser (Greece, Southeastern Europe, Europe)
    • Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. siculorum (Romania to W. Ukraine).
  • Dactylorhiza ebudensis (Wief. ex R.M. Bateman & Denholm) P. Delforge : Hebridean marsh orchid
  • Dactylorhiza elata (Poir.) Soó : Stately Dactylorhiza (W. Europe to NW. Africa).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. ambigua (Martrin-Donos) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. brennensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. elata (NW. Africa).
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. mauritanica B.Baumann & H. Baumann (Morocco, Algeria)
    • Dactylorhiza elata subsp. sesquipedalis (SW. Europe to Sicilia).
  • Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep.
    • Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. armeniaca (Hedrén) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza flavescens (Turkey to C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza foliosa : Richly leaved Dactylorhiza (Madeira).
  • Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó  : common spotted orchid, Fuch's dactylorhiza (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. carpatica (Batousek & Kreutz) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. fuchsii (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. hebridensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. meyeri (Rchb.f.) Kulikov & E.G.Philippov
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. okellyi (Ireland, W. Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. psychrophila (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sooana (Borsos) Kreutz (Hungary)
    • Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sudetica (Poech ex Rchb.f.) H.Baumann
  • Dactylorhiza gervasiana (Sicilia to S. Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza graeca (N. Greece) - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca (H.Baumann) Presser)
  • Dactylorhiza graggeriana (W. Himalaya).
  • Dactylorhiza hatagirea (Pakistan to SE. Tibet).
  • Dactylorhiza iberica (Greece to Iran).
  • Dactylorhiza ilgazica (N. Turkey) - now synonym of Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. ilgazica (Kreutz) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó  : early marsh orchid
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata var. baumgartneriana (B.Baumann, H.Baumann, R.Lorenz & Ruedi Peter) P.Delforge
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. coccinea
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. cruenta (Europe to Turkey).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. gemmana (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. incarnata (Europe to Mongolia).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. krylovii (W. Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. lobelii (Norway to The Netherlands).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. ochroleuca (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. pulchella (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. versicolor (Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza insularis : Island Dactylorhiza (W. Medit. to WC. Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza kafiriana (NE. Afghanistan to W. Himalaya).
  • Dactylorhiza kalopissii E.Nelson (N. Greece).
    • Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. macedonica (J.Hölzinger & Künkele) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. pythagorae (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza kulikalonica (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza lapponica (Laest.ex Hartm.) Soó (N. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. angustata (Arv.-Touv.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. rhaetica H. Baumann & R. Lorenz (Alps of Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France)
  • Dactylorhiza libanotica (Lebanon)
  • Dactylorhiza longifolia (Europe to C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza macedonica (N. Greece) - now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. macedonica (J.Hölzinger & Künkele) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó : heath spotted orchid, Moorland Spotted Orchid (NW. Africa, Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. battandieri (N. Algeria).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. caramulensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. elodes (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. ericetorum : heath spotted orchid (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. islandica (Iceland).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. kolaensis (Montell) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. maculata (Europe to Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. maurusia (Morocco)
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. podesta (Netherlands).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. rhoumensis (Great Britain)
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. savogiensis (D.Tyteca & Gathoye) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. schurii (Carpathians).
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. sennia (Vollmar) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. transsilvanica (SC. & SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza magna (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P.F.Hunt & Summerh.  : broad-leaved marsh orchid, western marsh orchid, fan orchid, common marsh orchid (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis var. brevifolia (Rchb.f.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens (Denmark)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. majalis (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. occidentalis (W. & SW. Ireland, N. Great Britain) (synonym of Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Wilmott) P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes)
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. parvimajalis (D.Tyteca & Gathoye) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. sphagnicola
    • Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. turfosa (Alps to W. Carpathians) - has become a synonym of Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. turfosa (F.Proch.) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza markusii : Markus' Dactylorhiza (N. Portugal to W. Spain and Italy).
  • Dactylorhiza nieschalkiorum (N. Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza occidentalis (Pugsley) P. Delforge : Irish marsh orchid (synonym of Dactylorhiza kerryensis (Wilmott) P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes)
  • Dactylorhiza osmanica (Turkey to Syria).
    • Dactylorhiza osmanica var. anatolica (Turkey).
    • Dactylorhiza osmanica var. osmanica (Turkey to Syria).
  • Dactylorhiza pindica (NW. Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza praetermissa : leopard marsh orchid, southern marsh orchid (W. & NW. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza purpurella (T.Stephenson & T.A.Stephenson) Soó : northern marsh orchid (Great Britain, Ireland).
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. maculosa (T. Stephenson)
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. purpurella
    • Dactylorhiza purpurella var. cambrensis (R.H.Roberts) R.M.Bateman & Denholm 2005
  • Dactylorhiza pythagorae (E. Aegean Is.) - now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. pythagorae (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza romana : Roman Dactylorhiza (Mediterranean)
  • Dactylorhiza russowii (Klinge) Holub (C. Europe to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soó  : Sack-carrying Dactylorhiza (Mediterranean)
    • Dactylorhiza saccifera subsp. bithynica (H.Baumann) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza saccifera subsp. gervasiana (Tod.) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza salina (Caucasus to Amur)
  • Dactylorhiza sambucina : elder-flowered orchid (Europe). Photos
  • Dactylorhiza sudetica (Europe to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri (Saut. ex Rchb.) Soó : narrow-leaved marsh orchid, Traunstein's Dactylorhiza (Europe to W. Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. carpatica (Slovakia) - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. carpatica (Batousek & Kreutz) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. turfosa (F.Proch.) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. curvifolia (N. & NE. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. traunsteineri (Europe to W. Siberia).
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. wirtgenii (Höppner) Kreutz
    • Dactylorhiza traunsteinerioides (Pugsley) Landwehr (synonym of Dactylorhiza traunsteineri subsp. traunsteineri)
  • Dactylorhiza umbrosa (W. & C. Asia to Siberia)
  • Dactylorhiza urvilleana (Steud.) H.Baumann & Künkele (N. & NE. Turkey to Iran)
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. bithynica (H.Baumann) H. Baumann & R. Lorenz
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. phoenissa B. Baumann & H. Baumann (Lebanon)
    • Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp. ilgazica (Kreutz) Kreutz
  • Dactylorhiza viridis : Frog orchid (Subarctic and subalpine Northern Hemisphere).
    • Dactylorhiza viridis var. virescens (Temp. Asia, N. America)
    • Dactylorhiza viridis var. viridis (Subarctic and subalpine Northern Hemisphere)


Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana
Dactylorhiza × braunii

Note : nothosubspecies = a hybrid subspecies; nothovarietas = subvariety.

  • Dactylorhiza × abantiana (D. iberica × D. nieschalkiorum) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × aldenii (D. iberica × D. kalopissii) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × altobracensis (D. maculata × D. sambucina) (France, Austria).
  • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana (D. incarnata × D. majalis) (W. & C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothosubsp. aschersoniana (W. & C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothosubsp. templinensis (D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × aschersoniana nothovar. uliginosa (D. incarnata subsp.pulchella × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × baicalica (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. salina) (Siberia).
  • Dactylorhiza × balabaniana (D. iberica × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × bayburtiana (D. euxina × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × beckeriana (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × boluiana (D. nieschalkiorum × D. saccifera) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × bourdonii (D. brennensis × D. incarnata) (France).
  • Dactylorhiza × braunii (D. fuchsii × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. braunii (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. lilacina (D fuchsii × D. majalis subsp. turfosa) (EC. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. monticola (D. fuchsii subsp. psychrophila × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × braunii nothosubsp. smitakii (D. fuchsii subsp. sooana × D. majalis) (EC. Europe). te
  • Dactylorhiza × breviceras (D. osmanica × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × carnea (D. incarnata × D. maculata subsp. ericetorum) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. ampolai (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. maculata) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. carnea (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × carnea nothosubsp. maculatiformis. (D. incarnata × D. maculata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × claudiopolitana (D. incarnata × D. schurii) (Europe.
  • Dactylorhiza × conigerum (D. maculata × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × csatoi (D. cordigera × D. maculata) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza czerniakowskae (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza × daunia (D. romana × D. saccifera) (S. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × delamainii (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. maculata) (SW. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis subsp. occidentalis) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. dinglensis (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. robertsii (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis subsp. cambrensi) (Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. senayi (D. maculata subsp. elodes × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. townsendiana (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. majalis) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dinglensis nothosubsp. vermeuleniana (D. maculata × D. majalis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × drucei (D. majalis × D. viridis) (W. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × dubreuilhii (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. incarnata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dufftiana (D. majalis × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × dufftii (D. incarnata × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. dufftii (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. gotlandica (D incarnata subsp. ochroleuca × D. traunsteineri) (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Dactylorhiza × dufftii nothosubsp. stenkyrkae (D. incarnata subsp. cruenta × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × erdingeri (D. sambucina × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza euxina (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
    • Dactylorhiza euxinavar. euxina (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
    • Dactylorhiza euxinavar. markowitschii (NE. Turkey to Caucasus).
  • Dactylorhiza × flixensis (D. incarnata subsp. pulchella × D. traunsteineri.) (Switzerland).
  • Dactylorhiza × formosa (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × fourkensis (D. baumanniana × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × gabretana (D. incarnata × D. maculata × D. sambucina) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × genevensis (D. incarnata × D. latifolia × D. maculata) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × godferyana (D. majalis × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × grandis (D. fuchsii × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × guilhotii (D. incarnata × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × guillaumeae (D. incarnata × D. sambucina) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × gustavssonii (D. iberica × D. saccifera) (Greece to Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × hallii (D maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × hallii nothosubsp. hallii (W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × hallii nothosubsp. nummiana (D. maculata subsp. elodes × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × hochreutinerana (D. alpestris × D. incarnata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × insignis (D. praetermissa × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × ishorica (D. incarnata × D. longifolia) (European Russia).
  • Dactylorhiza × jenensis (D. maculata subsp. ericetorum × D. traunsteineri) (W. & NC. Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × jestrebiensis (D. bohemica × D. majalis) (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × juennensis (D. fuchsii × D. lapponica) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × katarana (D kalopissii × D. saccifera) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kelleriana (D. fuchsii × D. traunsteineri) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × kerasovinensis (D. pindica × D. saccifera) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum (D. fuchsii × D. incarnata) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. kerneriorum (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. lillsundica (D. fuchsii × D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca) (N. & W. Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × kerneriorum nothosubsp. variablis (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. incarnata) (W. Europe). *Dactylorhiza × komiensis (D. hebridensis × D. maculata) (E. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × kopdagiana (D. iberica × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × koutsourana (D. baumanniana × D. smolikana) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × kuuskiae (D.longifolia × D. traunsteineri) (E. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × latirella (D. incarnata × D. purpurella) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × lehmannii (D. incarnata × D. russowii) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × megapolitana (D. fuchsii × D. russowii) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × metsowonensis (D. kalopissii × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × mixtum (D. fuchsii × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × mulignensis (D. incarnata subsp. pulchella × D. majalis) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × nevskii (D. osmanica × D. umbrosa) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × ornonensis (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. incarnata × D. maculata) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × paridaeniana (D. elata subsp. sesquipedalis × D. praetermissa) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × pontica (D. urvilleana × D. viridis) (Turkey)
  • Dactylorhiza × prochazkana (D. bohemica × D. maculata) (EC. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × renzii (D. incarnata × D. nieschalkiorum) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × rizeana (D. euxina × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × rombucina (D. romana × D. sambucina) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × ruppertii (D. majalis × D. sambucina) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × salictina (D. pindica × D. smolikana) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × serbica (D. incarnata × D. saccifera) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × serreana (D. graeca × D. lagotis) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × sivasiana (D. umbrosa × D. urvilleana) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × sooi (D. alpestris × D. fuchsii.) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × souflikensis (D. baumanniana × D. pindica) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × stagni-novi (D. brennensis × D. fuchsii) (Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × szaboiana (D. cordigera × D. sudetica) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × transiens (D. fuchsii × D. maculata subsp. ericetorum) (Europe)
    • Dactylorhiza × transiens nothosubsp. corylensis (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. maculata)
    • Dactylorhiza × transienssubsp. ericetorum (Europe). Tuber geophyte
    • Dactylorhiza × transiens nothosubsp. transiens (Europe). Tuber geophyte
  • Dactylorhiza × turcestanicum (D. umbrosa × D. viridis) (C. Asia).
  • Dactylorhiza × vallis-peenae (D. majalis × D. russowii) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × venusta (D. fuchsii × D. purpurella) (Europe).
    • Dactylorhiza × venusta nothosubsp. hebridella (D. fuchsii subsp. hebridensis × D. purpurella) (Great Britain).
    • Dactylorhiza × venusta nothosubsp. venusta (Europe)
  • Dactylorhiza × viridella (D. purpurella × D. viridis) (W. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × vitosana (D. saccifera × D. sambucina) (SE. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × vogtiana (D. iberica × D. incarnata) (Turkey).
  • Dactylorhiza × vorasica (D. cordigera × D. sambucina) (Greece).
  • Dactylorhiza × weissenbachiana (D. incarnata × D. lapponica) (C. Europe).
  • Dactylorhiza × wiefelspuetziana (D. maculata × D. sphagnicola) (W. Europe).

This list follows the World checklist of monocotyledons,[5] periodically amended from the "Orchid Research Newsletter".[6]

Distribution and habitat

These terrestrial orchids grow in basic soils in wet meadows, bogs, heathland and in areas sparsely populated by trees. They are distributed throughout the subarctic and temperate northern hemisphere. It is found across much of Europe, North Africa and Asia from Portugal and Iceland to Taiwan and Kamchatka, including Russia, Japan, China, Central Asia, the Middle East, Ukraine, Scandinavia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, the United Kingdom, etc. Inclusion of the widespread frog orchid, often called Coeloglossum viride, into Dactylorhiza as per some recent classifications,[7][8] expands the genus distribution to include Canada and much of the United States.[1]


  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Dactylorhiza
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  3. ^ Foley, M (2005). Orchids of the British Isles. Cheltenham, UK: Griffin press Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-9541916-1-7.
  4. ^ Brandrud, Marie K; Baar, Juliane; Lorenzo, Maria T; Athanasiadis, Alexander; Bateman, Richard M; Chase, Mark W; Hedrén, Mikael; Paun, Ovidiu (2019-05-25). Savolainen, Vincent (ed.). "Phylogenomic Relationships of Diploids and the Origins of Allotetraploids in Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae)". Systematic Biology. 69 (1): 91–109. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syz035. ISSN 1063-5157. PMC 6902629. PMID 31127939.
  5. ^ World checklist of monocotyledons Archived 2007-09-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Orchid research Newsletter
  7. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Coeloglossum viride
  8. ^ Bateman, R.M. (2009). Evolutionary classification of European orchids: the crucial importance of maximising explicit evidence and minimising authoritarian speculation. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 41: 243-318. [as Dactylorhiza viridis]


External links