This is a list of North American mammals. It includes all mammals currently found in the United States, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Canada, Greenland, Bermuda, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean region, whether resident or as migrants. This article does not include species found only in captivity. Mammal species which became extinct in the last 10,000 to 13,000 years are also included in this article. Each species is listed, with its binomial name. Most established introduced species occurring across multiple states and provinces are also noted.

Some species are identified as indicated below:

  • (A) = Accidental: occurrence based on one or a few records, and unlikely to occur regularly
  • (E) = Extinct: died out between 13,000 years ago and the present
  • (Ex) = Extirpated: no longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations exist elsewhere
  • (I) = Introduced: population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous

Conservation status - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

EX - extinct, EW - extinct in the wild
CR - critically endangered, EN - endangered, VU - vulnerable
NT - near threatened, LC - least concern
DD - data deficient, NE - not evaluated
(v. 2013.2, the data is current as of March 5, 2014[1])

and Endangered Species Act:

E - endangered, T - threatened
XN, XE - experimental non essential or essential population
E(S/A), T(S/A) - endangered or threatened due to similarity of appearance
(selected only taxa found in the US, the data is current as of March 28, 2014[2])

Didelphimorphia (opossums)

Didelphidae

Cingulata (armadillos)

Dasypodidae

Chlamyphoridae

Pampatheriidae

Pilosa: Vermilingua (anteaters and tamanduas)

Cyclopedidae

Myrmecophagidae

Pilosa: Folivora (sloths)

Megalonychidae

Jefferson's ground sloth

Bradypodidae (three-toed sloths)

Choloepodidae (two-toed sloths)

Megatheriidae

Mylodontidae

Nothrotheriidae

Rodentia (rodents)

Echimyidae

Heteropsomyinae

Echimyinae

Capromyinae (hutias)

Aplodontiidae

(ssp. A. r. nigra: E)

Castoridae (beavers)

North American beaver

Zapodidae (jumping mice)

(Preble's meadow jumping mouse, Z. h. preblei: T) and:[n 3]

Erethizontidae (New World porcupines)

Caviidae (cavy family)

Heptaxodontidae (giant hutia)

Dasyproctidae

Cuniculidae

Geomyidae (pocket gophers)

There has been much debate among taxonomists about which races of pocket gopher should be recognized as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Botta's pocket gopher

Heteromyidae

Ord's kangaroo rat
(Morro Bay kangaroo rat, D. h. morroensis: E)
(San Bernardino kangaroo rat, D. m. parvus: E)
(Fresno subspecies D. n. exilis and Tipton kangaroo rat, D. n. nitratoides: E)
(Pacific pocket mouse, P. l. pacificus: E)

Sciuridae (squirrels)

Eastern gray squirrel
Black-tailed prairie dog
Woodchuck
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Eastern chipmunk

Xerinae: Marmotini (ground squirrels)

Sciurinae: Pteromyini (flying squirrels)

(Carolina northern flying squirrel G. s. coloratus and Virginia northern flying squirrel G. s. fuscus: E)

Sciurinae: Sciurini

(Delmarva fox squirrel, S. n. cinereus: E)
(Mount Graham red squirrel, T. f. grahamensis: E)
(Mount Graham red squirrel, T. h. grahamensis: E)

Cricetidae

There has been much debate among taxonomists about which races of mice and voles should be recognized as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Eastern meadow vole
Muskrat
Deer mouse
Cactus mouse

Arvicolinae

(ssp. scirpen: E)

Neotominae

(Key Largo woodrat, N. f. smalli: E)
(ssp. riparia: E)
(ssp. allapaticola: E)
(Choctawhatchee beach mouse, P. p. allophrys, Perdido Key beach mouse, P. p. trissyllepsis, St. Andrews beach mouse, P. p. peninsularis, Alabama beach mouse, P. p. ammobates and Anastasia Island beach mouse, P. p. phasma: E, Southeastern beach mouse, P. p. niveiventris: T)

Sigmodontinae

Tylomyinae

Primates

Aotidae (night monkeys)

Atelidae

Callitrichidae

Cebidae

Lagomorpha (rabbits and hares)

Leporidae (rabbits and hares)

Black-tailed jackrabbit
(Lower Keys marsh rabbit, S. p. hefneri: E)

Ochotonidae

Eulipotyphla (moles and shrews)

Talpidae (moles)

Star-nosed mole

Soricidae (shrews)

Short-tailed shrew
Cinerous shrew

Solenodontidae

Nesophontidae

Chiroptera (bats)

Molossidae (free-tailed bats)

Emballonuridae (sac-winged bats)

Natalidae (funnel-eared bats)

Vespertilionidae

Indiana bat
Mexican long-nosed bat
(ssp. C. t. virginianus and C. t. ingens: E)

Mormoopidae

Furipteridae

Noctilionidae (bulldog bats)

Phyllostomidae (New World leaf-nosed bats)

Brachyphyllinae

Carolliinae

Desmodontinae (vampire bats)

Glossophaginae

Phyllonycterinae

Phyllostominae

Stenodermatinae

Thyropteridae

Carnivora (carnivorans)

Felidae (cats)

Jaguar
(ssp. P. o. augusta (E))
(ssp. P. c. couguar E)

Canidae (dogs)

Gray wolf
(ssp. U.l. littoralis, U. l. catalinae, U. l. santarosae and U. l. santacruzae: E)

Ursidae (bears)

Procyonidae

Mustelidae

River otter
(ssp. E. l. nereis and E. l. kenyoni: T, ssp. E. l. nereis also XN)

Mephitidae

Otariidae (eared seals)

(ssp. E. j. monteriensis: LC, ssp. E. j. jubatus: EN) T (except west of 144° W, where E)

Odobenidae

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus [n 4] VU (O. r. divergens DD, O. r. rosmarus NT)

Phocidae (earless seals)

Harbor seal

Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)

Equidae (horse family)

Tapiridae (tapirs)

Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)

Camelidae

Tayassuidae

Bovidae (bovines)

American bison
(Desert bighorn sheep, O. c. nelsoni and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, O. c. sierrae: E)
(ssp. S. t. tatarica: EN, ssp. S. t. mongolica EN)

Cervidae (deer)

(Columbian white-tailed deer, O. v. leucurus and Key deer, O. v. clavium: E)
(Migratory woodland caribou, R. t. caribou: E)

Antilocapridae

  • Pronghorn, Antilocapra americana [n 4] LC (A. a. peninsularis and sonoriensis EN)
(Baja California pronghorn, A. a. peninsularis: E, Sonoran pronghorn, A. a. sonoriensis: E)

Cetacea

Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins)

Killer whales, Orcinus orca
near Unimak Island,
eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

Monodontidae

Phocoenidae (porpoises)

Kogiidae

Physeteridae

Ziphiidae (beaked whales)

Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus

Eschrichtiidae (gray whales)

Balaenopteridae (rorquals)

(ssp. brevicauda - pygmy blue whale: DD, ssp. musculus North Pacific stock: LR/cd, ssp. musculus North Atlantic stock: VU)

Balaenidae

Sirenia (sea cows)

Manatee, Trichechus manatus
Crystal River, Florida

Trichechidae

(ssp. T. m. manatus - Antillean or Caribbean manatee: EN, ssp. T. m. latirostris - Florida manatee: EN)

Dugongidae

Proboscidea

Physical reconstruction of a mammoth and a mastodon

Elephantidae

Mammutidae

Gomphothere

Introduced mammals

Echimyidae - Echimyinae, Myocastorini

Muridae

Leporidae (rabbits and hares)

Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)

Herpestidae (mongoose)

Mustelidae

Suidae (pigs)

Bovidae (bovines)

Cervidae (deer)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  2. ^ Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as Opossum, D. marsupialis (merged Mexican, D. marsupialis and D. virginiana).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs Species split from this species or considered as distinct species alternatively. All these taxa occur in the area of interest, including the one on the left.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g [Species split from this species or considered as distinct species alternatively.When treating these taxa separately, the one on the left does not occur in the area of interest.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of another species as possible split.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - described separately as the nominative species but merged with another species.
  8. ^ Texas pocket gopher, Geomys personatus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] - as 2 distinct species: Texas Pocket Gopher G. personatus and Strecker's Pocket Gopher G. streckeri.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - described as the nominative species and 1 or 2 additional distinct species.
  10. ^ Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002.[4]
  11. ^ Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] and IUCN Red List,[7] also probably North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] and Baker et al. 2003[3] - Dipodomys elephantinus merged with D. venustus as D. venustus elephantinus.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Not recognized as a separate species in the Mammal Diversity Database v. 1.10.[9]
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Baker et al. 2003,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  14. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - range not clear because described separately as the nominative species but merged with another species.
  15. ^ a b c Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
  16. ^ Mexican fox squirrel, Sciurus nayaritensis: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - only as Apache fox squirrel S. apache.
  17. ^ Northern collared lemming, Dicrostonyx groenlandicus: Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003[3] - as 3 distinct species: Peary Land collared lemming D. groenlandicus, Bering collared lemming D. rubricatus and Victoria collared lemming D. kilangmiutak
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] - described separately as the nominative species but merged with D. exsul.
  18. ^ Nelson's collared lemming, Dicrostonyx nelsoni: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003[3] - as 2 distinct species: Nelson's collared lemming D. nelsoni and St. Lawrence Island collared lemming D. exsul.
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] - mentioned only in the description of D. groenlandicus as possible split (D. exsul).
  19. ^ a b c d e Baker et al. 2003,[3] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  20. ^ a b Mexican vole, Microtus mexicanus:
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List[7] - M. mexicanus.
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - only M. mogollonensis.
    North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] - M. mexicanus listed, but only M. mexicanus mogollensis (Arizona and New Mexico) described in "Mexican Vole (Microtus mexicanus)" chapter.
    IUCN Red List[7] - M. mexicanus sometimes split in two species: M. mexicanus and M. mogollonensis.[14][15]
    12 subspecies are recognized, 4 occur in the USA (1991[16]), Hualapai Mexican vole M. m. hualpaiensis is listed as endangered (E) under the Endangered Species Act.[2][16]
  21. ^ a b c d e f Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  22. ^ Northern rock mouse, Peromyscus nasutus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of rock mouse, Peromyscus difficilis that P. difficilis was formerly known as P. nasuts, so range is not clear because these species are merged here.
  23. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - described separately as the nominative species but probably merged with another species.
  24. ^ a b c Baker et al. 2003,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  25. ^ a b c d Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  26. ^ North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  27. ^ Long-tailed shrew, Sorex dispar: IUCN Red List.[7]

    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5]
    - as 2 distinct species: longtail/long-tailed shrew S. dispar and Gaspé shrew S. gaspensis.
  28. ^ Gaspé shrew, Sorex gaspensis: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5]
  29. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] IUCN Red List.[7]
  30. ^ Velvety free-tailed bat: Baker et al. 2003,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - it is believed that colonies found in buildings in the Florida Keys were members of Molossidae.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  32. ^ Southwestern myotis, Myotis auriculus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of long-eared myotis, M. evotis as possible split, occurring in southern N. Mexico.
  33. ^ a b North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  34. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  35. ^ Prinstine mustached bat: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - possibly Florida.
    Extinct at the end of Pleistocene - in the USA found in Rancholabrean cave deposits in southern Florida (Monkey Jungle Hammock).[21]
  36. ^ Lesser long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae: Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003[3] - as southern long-nosed bat L. curasoae (L. yerbabuenae was included[22] in L. curasoae as a subspecies[23]).
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of L. nivalis under the junior synonym[22] L. sanborni as possible split, so range is not clear here.
  37. ^ Margay: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3).[6]
    Kays & Wilson 2002:[4] last record in Texas from 1852.[4]
  38. ^ Red fox, Vulpes vulpes: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as North American V. fulva distinct from the Old World species V. vulpes.
  39. ^ Brown bear, Ursus arctos: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as 2 distinct species: grizzly bear, U. horribilis and Kodiak bear, U. middendorffi, also distinct from the "worldwide" species U. arctos.
  40. ^ Wolverine, Gulo gulo: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as North American G. luscus distinct from the Old World species G. gulo.
  41. ^ Least weasel, Mustela nivalis: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as North American M. rixosa distinct from the Old World species M. nivalis.
  42. ^ American hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus leuconotus: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - as 2 distinct species: eastern hog-nosed skunk C. leuconotus and western hog-nosed skunk C. mesoleucus.
  43. ^ Guadalupe fur seal, Arctocephalus townsendi: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as Guadalupe fur seal A. philippi, formerly A. townsendi.
  44. ^ a b Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  45. ^ Moose, Alces americanus: North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] - as North American A. americanus (distinct from Eurasian elk A. alces).

    Alces alces: IUCN Red List,[7] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002.[4]
  46. ^ Elk, Cervus canadensis: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] (species list from the database).
    Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] (Field Guide), Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List[7] - as "worldwide" C. elaphus (not North American C. canadensis.)
  47. ^ Caribou, Rangifer tarandus: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as 3 distinct species: woodland caribou, R. caribou, barren-ground caribou, R. arcticus and Greenland caribou R. tarandus.
  48. ^ Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
  49. ^ Pygmy beaked whale: Kays & Wilson 2002:[4] one record in North America, Division of Mammals Collections NMNH SI:[33] two strandings in California (2001 and 2012).
  50. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
  51. ^ House mouse: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - only general range description.
  52. ^ a b Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002.[4]
  53. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  54. ^ European rabbit: Baker et al. 2003.[3]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - range not clear (islands on Pacific Coast).
    Introduced to Hawaii.[37]
  55. ^ Sus scrofa: Baker et al. 2003[3] - feral pig or wild boar, Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - wild boar (Swine), Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - wild boar, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - wild boar - feral populations, IUCN Red List[7] - wild boar - introduced.
  56. ^ a b c d e f Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  57. ^ Barbary sheep - free ranging.[52][53]
  58. ^ Blackbuck - free ranging.[52][53][54][55]
  59. ^ Nilgai - semi-free-ranging[52]/free-ranging.[53]
  60. ^ Bezoar ibex - free-ranging: Florida Mountains near Deming New Mexico.[54]
  61. ^ Gemsbok - free ranging.[57][54]
  62. ^ Chital - free-ranging.[52]
  63. ^ Red deer, elaphus division (not canadensis division) - introduced [6]
  64. ^ Sambar - free ranging.[53]

References

  1. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries, § 17.11 Endangered and threatened wildlife". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Robert J. Baker; Lisa C. Bradley; Robert D. Bradley; Jerry W. Dragoo; Mark D. Engstrom; Robert S. Hoffmann; Cheri A. Jones; Fiona Reid; Dale W. Rice & Clyde Jones (1 December 2003). "Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003" (PDF). Occasional Papers (229). Museum of Texas Tech University. ISSN 0149-175X. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Kays, Roland W.; Wilson, Don E. (2002). Mammals of North America. Illustrated by Sandra Doyle, Nancy Halliday, Ron Klingner, Elizabeth McClelland, Consie Powell, Wendy Smith, Todd Zalewski, Diane Gibbons, Susan C. Morse, Jesse Guertin. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07012-1.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "North American Mammals". Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 1 April 2014. This site is based on The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, by Don E. Wilson and Sue Ruff (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999) and Mammals of North America, by Roland W. Kays and Don E. Wilson (Princeton University Press, 2002). Downloaded on 25 March 2014
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af * Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao "Search Results: Mammalia North America 2014-03-29". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. IUCN. 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2014. Search terms Search by taxonomy: Mammalia, Search by location: North America, (Native, Introduced, Vagrant, Uncertain), Refinements : [X] Show regional assessments:, Taxa to show: Species, Subspecies and varieties, Stocks and subpopulation. Downloaded on 29 March 2014
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Burt, William Henry (Text and Maps); Grossenheider, Richard Philip (Illustrations) (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals. North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides (Third ed.). Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-91098-6.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj