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Purple Finch

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The purple finch (Haemorhous purpureus) is a bird in the finch family, Fringillidae. It breeds in the northern United States, southern Canada, and the west coast of North America.

Taxonomy

The purple finch was formally described in 1789 by the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in his revised and expanded edition of Carl Linnaeus's Systema Naturae. He placed it with the finches in the genus Fringilla and coined the binomial name Fringilla purpurea. Gmelin specified the locality as Carolina.[2][3] Gmelin based his account on the "purple finch" that had been described and illustrated by the English naturalist Mark Catesby in his book The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands.[4] The purple finch is now one of three finches placed in the genus Haemorhous that was introduced in 1837 by the English naturalist William Swainson.[5]

Two subspecies are recognised:[5]

  • H. p. purpureus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) – central south, southeast Canada and northeast USA
  • H. p. californicus (Baird, SF, 1858) – southwest Canada and west USA

This species and the other "American rosefinches" were formerly included with the rosefinches of Eurasia in the genus Carpodacus; however, the three North American species are not closely related to the rosefinches of the Old World, and have thus been moved to the genus Haemorhous.[5][6]

Description

The purple finch is 12–16 cm (4.7–6.3 in) in overall length[7] and weighs a mean 23.3 g (0.82 oz), ranging from 19.8–28.4 g (0.7 - 1.0 oz).[8] It has a short forked brown tail and brown wings. Adult males are raspberry red on the head, breast, back and rump; their back is streaked. Adult females have light brown upperparts and white underparts with dark brown streaks throughout; they have a white line on the face above the eye.

The subspecies H. p. californicus differs from the nominate in having a longer tail and shorter wings. The plumage of both males and females is darker, and the coloration of the females is more greenish.[9] It also has a longer bill.[10]

Distribution and habitat

Their breeding habitat is coniferous and mixed forest in Canada and the northeastern United States, as well as various wooded areas along the U.S. Pacific coast.

Birds from northern Canada migrate to the southern United States; other birds are permanent residents.[citation needed]

The purple finch population has been displaced from some breeding season habitats in the Eastern United States following the introduction of the house finch, which is native to the western U.S. and Mexico. The two species share a similar niche, with the house finch often outcompeting the purple finch during the summer.[11]

Behavior

Male purple finch

Food and feeding

These birds forage in trees and bushes, sometimes in ground vegetation. They mainly eat seeds, berries, and insects. They are fond of sunflower seeds, millet, and thistle.

Breeding

The purple finch prefers nesting in lowland coniferous and mixed forests, avoiding more heavily populated urban areas, but sometimes found in rural residential areas. The female Purple Finch usually builds her nest on horizontal branches of coniferous trees, away from the trunk, but occasionally in tree forks. The nest is shaped like an open cup, made up of rootlets, twigs, and weeds, and lined with grass, hair, and moss.

Cultural depictions

The purple finch was designated the state bird of New Hampshire in 1957.[12] It was chosen over the also popular and iconic New Hampshire Red.[13] In 1763, Richard Brookes made the description of the female purple finch in Mexico with the name of "chiantototl" (chia seed bird).[14]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Haemorhous purpureus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720553A94672558. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720553A94672558.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. ^ Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (1789). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae : secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1, Part 2 (13th ed.). Lipsiae [Leipzig]: Georg. Emanuel. Beer. p. 923.
  3. ^ Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1968). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 14. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 270.
  4. ^ Catesby, Mark (1729–1732). The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (in English and French). Vol. 1. London: W. Innys and R. Manby. p. 41, Plate 41.
  5. ^ a b c Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2023). "Finches, euphonias". IOC World Bird List Version 13.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  6. ^ Zuccon, Dario; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Ericson, Per G.P. (February 2012). "The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (2): 581–596. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.10.002.
  7. ^ "Purple Finch Identification, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". www.allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved 2024-04-02.
  8. ^ Dunning, Jr., John B. (2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 516. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
  9. ^ Bailey, Florence Merriam; Fuertes, Louis Agassiz (1921). Handbook of Birds of the Western United States. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 310.
  10. ^ Kaufman, Kenneth (1999). A Field Guide to Advanced Birding. HMCo Field Guides. pp. 267–268. ISBN 0-395-97500-X.
  11. ^ Wootton, J. T. (1987). "Interspecific Competition between Introduced House Finch Populations and Two Associated Passerine Species". Oecologia. 71 (3): 325–331. doi:10.1007/BF00378703. PMID 28312977.
  12. ^ "Stage Bird | New Hampshire Almanac | NH.gov". www.nh.gov. Retrieved 2024-04-02.
  13. ^ "New Hampshire's Avian Emblem: The Purple Finch". www.birdielearning.com. Retrieved 2024-04-15.
  14. ^ Brookes, Richard (1763). The Natural History of Birds. Vol 2, p 205.

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  • Thumbnail for File:Purple finch in Sonoma California - Sarah Stierch - B.jpg
    I think this is a house finch, rather than a purple finch. They look very similar. Harborsparrow (talk) 13:28, 23 March 2021 (UTC) I, the copyright holder...
    (867 × 1,260 (663 KB)) - 18:53, 20 November 2021
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple finch in Sonoma California - Sarah Stierch - A.jpg
    I think this is a house finch, rather than a purple finch. They look very similar.Harborsparrow (talk) 13:26, 23 March 2021 (UTC) I, the copyright holder...
    (1,059 × 1,455 (726 KB)) - 18:53, 20 November 2021
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch (Audubon).jpg
    0falsefalse This image is a derivative work of the following images: File:4_Purple_Finch.jpg licensed with Cc-pd-mark-footer, PD-old 2009-12-10T06:50:17Z Mturtle...
    (904 × 1,505 (353 KB)) - 18:11, 30 June 2016
  • Thumbnail for File:AFile-Purple finch in Sonoma California - Sarah Stierch - C.jpg
    org/licenses/by/4.0CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 truetrue English Purple Finch object has role: photographer author name string: Sarah Stierch Wikimedia...
    (834 × 1,093 (486 KB)) - 16:13, 13 June 2023
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch 3144m.jpg
    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple Finch, male author name string: Vickie J Anderson Wikimedia username: VJAnderson...
    (2,577 × 1,810 (4.43 MB)) - 17:02, 27 July 2023
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch 0502m.jpg
    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple Finch, male author name string: Vickie J Anderson Wikimedia username: VJAnderson...
    (3,585 × 2,793 (6.36 MB)) - 17:01, 27 July 2023
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch 8902m.jpg
    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple Finch, female author name string: Vickie J Anderson Wikimedia username: VJAnderson...
    (2,625 × 1,887 (4.32 MB)) - 17:06, 27 July 2023
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch 8675m.jpg
    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple Finch, male author name string: Vickie J Anderson Wikimedia username: VJAnderson...
    (2,474 × 1,773 (3.37 MB)) - 17:05, 27 July 2023
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    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple Finch, female author name string: Vickie J Anderson Wikimedia username: VJAnderson...
    (3,456 × 2,488 (4.5 MB)) - 17:02, 27 July 2023
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch Salt Marsh.jpg
    4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English A purple finch singing Wikimedia username: Ryanfmandelbaum URL: https://commons.wikimedia...
    (2,347 × 1,565 (2.46 MB)) - 04:32, 28 October 2020
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple finch in PP (94140).jpg
    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple finch in Prospect Park author name string: Rhododendrites Wikimedia username:...
    (1,273 × 846 (940 KB)) - 21:08, 5 March 2024
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple finch in GWC (76235).jpg
    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple finch object has role: photographer author name string: Rhododendrites Wikimedia...
    (2,785 × 2,042 (5 MB)) - 16:17, 5 March 2024
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    BY-SA 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Purple finch in Green-Wood Cemetery object has role: photographer author name string:...
    (2,757 × 2,172 (4.35 MB)) - 16:17, 5 March 2024
  • Thumbnail for File:Female Purple Finch.jpg
    Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 truetrue English Female Purple Finch object has role: photographer author name string: Mathieu Landretti Wikimedia...
    (3,804 × 2,538 (2.5 MB)) - 21:12, 30 April 2023
  •  Synonyms Carpodacus purpureus  Vernacular names [edit wikidata 'Purple Finch'] English: Purple Finch asturianu: Carpodacus purpureus български: Пурпурна чинка...
    1 KB (220 words) - 20:11, 24 May 2018
  • Thumbnail for File:Haemorhous purpureus ssp. californicus.jpg
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 truetrue English Western Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus ssp. californicus)...
    (1,600 × 1,200 (558 KB)) - 04:46, 12 July 2023
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple-Finch-female-Oregon.jpg
    DescriptionPurple-Finch-female-Oregon.jpg A female house-finch purple finch with a cherry in her mouth. Date 21 June 2009 Source JIM CONRAD'S NATURALIST...
    (450 × 602 (38 KB)) - 06:19, 27 June 2022
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch (-165) (51642971236).jpg
    DescriptionPurple Finch (-165) (51642971236).jpg Farren Rd. Photo: Steve Colwell Date 30 October 2021, 14:51 Source Purple Finch (#165) Author Channel...
    (3,442 × 2,588 (7.4 MB)) - 20:06, 8 March 2024
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch DSC5650vv.jpg
    DescriptionPurple Finch DSC5650vv.jpg English: Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus) male, Western Washington State Date 9 April 2019 Source Own work Author...
    (1,979 × 1,433 (1.95 MB)) - 22:28, 22 February 2022
  • Thumbnail for File:Purple Finch (32382138996).jpg
    DescriptionPurple Finch (32382138996).jpg Purple Finch Date 23 June 2013, 17:45 Source Purple Finch Author dfaulder...
    (2,236 × 1,490 (3.14 MB)) - 11:12, 18 October 2020
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